2. Mother Earth is a unique, indivisible, self-regulating community of interrelated
beings that sustains, contains and reproduces all beings.
3. Each being is defined by its relationships as an integral part of Mother Earth.
4. The inherent rights of Mother Earth are inalienable in that they arise from the
same source as existence.
5. Mother Earth and all beings are entitled to all the inherent rights recognized
in this Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as may be made between
organic and inorganic beings, species, origin, use to human beings, or any other
6. Just as human beings have human rights, all other beings also have rights which
are specific to their species or kind and appropriate for their role and function
within the communities within which they exist.
7. The rights of each being are limited by the rights of other beings and any conflict
between their rights must be resolved in a way that maintains the integrity, balance
and health of Mother Earth.
Article 2. Inherent Rights of Mother Earth
1. Mother Earth and all beings of which she is composed have the following inherent
a) the right to life and to exist;
b) the right to be respected;
c) the right to regenerate its bio-capacity and to continue its vital cycles and
processes free from human disruptions;
d) the right to maintain its identity and integrity as a distinct, self-regulating
and interrelated being;
e) the right to water as a source of life;
f) the right to clean air;
g) the right to integral health;
h) the right to be free from contamination, pollution and toxic or radioactive waste;
i) the right to not have its genetic structure modified or disrupted in a manner
that threatens it integrity or vital and healthy functioning;
j) the right to full and prompt restoration the violation of the rights recognized
in this Declaration caused by human activities;
2. Each being has the right to a place and to play its role in Mother Earth for her
3. Every being has the right to wellbeing and to live free from torture or cruel
treatment by human beings.
Article 3. Obligations of human beings to Mother Earth
1. Every human being is responsible for respecting and living in harmony with Mother
2. Human beings, all States, and all public and private institutions must:
a) act in accordance with the rights and obligations recognized in this Declaration;
b) recognize and promote the full implementation and enforcement of the rights and
obligations recognized in this Declaration;
c) promote and participate in learning, analysis, interpretation and communication
about how to live in harmony with Mother Earth in accordance with this Declaration;
d) ensure that the pursuit of human wellbeing contributes to the wellbeing of Mother
Earth, now and in the future;
e) establish and apply effective norms and laws for the defence, protection and conservation
of the rights of Mother Earth;
f) respect, protect, conserve and where necessary, restore the integrity, of the
vital ecological cycles, processes and balances of Mother Earth;
g) guarantee that the damages caused by human violations of the inherent rights recognized
in this Declaration are rectified and that those responsible are held accountable
for restoring the integrity and health of Mother Earth;
h) empower human beings and institutions to defend the rights of Mother Earth and
of all beings;
i) establish precautionary and restrictive measures to prevent human activities from
causing species extinction, the destruction of ecosystems or the disruption of ecological
j) guarantee peace and eliminate nuclear, chemical and biological weapons;
k) promote and support practices of respect for Mother Earth and all beings, in accordance
with their own cultures, traditions and customs;
l) promote economic systems that are in harmony with Mother Earth and in accordance
with the rights recognized in this Declaration.
Declaration for the rights of Mother Earth
Proposed for international legal adoption:
Although there might well be technical difficulties to overcome in applying a law
based on the declaration at national level, using the legal framework to apply such
common sense principles would seem an obvious way to protect future generations.